By  Debra A. Sokol-McKay, MS, CVRT, CDE, CLVT, OTR/L, SCLV  Updated by Kim Ladd, RN, BS, CPHQ, CDCES and Audrey Demmitt, RN, BSN, June 2021  Diabetes is a disease that requires 24-hour, 7-day-a-week self-management. It is YOU who lives with your diabetes and it is YOU who will make your health care decisions in consultation with your doctor or other members of your health care team. Blindness or low vision may present challenges, but aren’t necessarily barriers to effective and successful self-management of diabetes. Diabetes Self-ManagementBlood Glucose MonitoringInsulin and Insulin MeasurementHealthy EatingBeing ActiveProper Foot CareOverall Health Management    Diabetes Self-Management  Certified diabetes care and education specialists (CDCES), which are usually nurses or dieticians, in consultation with primary care physicians and endocrinologists (physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions affecting the glands and hormones), can help you learn more about managing your diabetes with diabetes self-management education (DSME) or diabetes self-management training (DSMT):  Visit your primary care physician when: 
  • You have an episode of very low blood glucose, several days of low blood glucose, or you can’t determine when your blood glucose is becoming low. 
  • You want to discuss a change or modification in your diabetes treatment plan. 
Visit an endocrinologist when: 
  • Your blood glucose levels are consistently higher than you want them to be. 
  • You have one or more diabetes complications or medical conditions that make managing your diabetes difficult. 
  • You’d like to change the way you manage your diabetes. 
Visit a nurse diabetes educator when: 
  • You want to better understand how diabetes affects your entire body. 
  • You want basic training to manage your diabetes. 
  • You’re having difficulty with at least one diabetes-related task, such as monitoring your blood glucose levels. 
  • You’re having problems coping with the emotional aspects of your diabetes. 
  • You want to start an exercise program or find physical activities to help you keep your diabetes in better control. 
Visit a dietician when: 
  • You don’t understand what or how much to eat. 
  • You have never had a consultation with a dietician, or the consultation was several years ago. 
  • You want to learn how to count carbohydrates for meal planning or insulin dosing. 
The most effective diabetes self-management treatment includes a combination of many therapies. ADCES proposes that there are 7 key behaviors that lead to optimum diabetes self-management and health. These are called the ADCES7™ Self-Care Behaviors. They include: 
  1. Healthy coping: recognizing negative emotions and taking steps to reduce the detrimental impact they can have on your self-care is an important part of diabetes management.  
  1. Healthy eating:preparing and eating a healthy diet, understanding and reading food labels, and portion control. When you have diabetes it’s very important to understand how the foods you eat affect your blood sugar levels. 
  1. Being active: engaging in appropriate physical activity and exercise while following necessary precautions. Being active helps to lower blood sugar levels, cholesterol levels, improve blood pressure, lower stress and anxiety, and improve your mood. 
  1. Monitoring: tracking blood sugar levels allows you to make food and activity adjustments to help ensure that your diabetes is being properly managed. It’s also important to monitor your blood pressure, foot health, steps walked, weight and activity, sleep, and achievement of goals, to help you stay on the path of good health.  
  1. Taking medication: taking medications in pill, injectable, liquid, and other forms as directed by your physician is a very important part of controlling blood sugar levels. 
  1. Problem solving: diabetes management problems like hypoglcemia/hyperglycemia, and sick days are very common. It’s important to utilize problem-solving skills to help prepare for when these unexpected problems occur– and make a plan for dealing with similar problems in the future. 
  1. Reducing risks: when diabetes is not properly managed, other health complications occur. It is important to help reduce your risk of complications by quitting smoking, performing foot checks, blood pressure monitoring, self-monitoring of blood glucose levels and getting regular eye, foot, and dental examinations. 
Blood Glucose Monitoring  Blood glucose monitoring allows you to evaluate the effectiveness of your diabetes treatment plan in maintaining your blood glucose levels within a normal range. Monitoring will also help you determine if your blood glucose level is low and, if so, what quantity of glucose-containing products or foods you must eat to raise your blood glucose levels into a safe range.    Monitor with a Standard Visual Display  In order to perform effective and consistent blood glucose monitoring, you must be able to access the numerical readout on your monitor. Here are some suggestions for individuals who have low vision and use a blood glucose monitor with a standard visual display: 
  • Use a magnifier or an electronic video magnifier with your current monitor. 
  • Use a flexible-arm task lamp and position it near your better-seeing eye. 
  • Place your monitoring equipment on a contrasting surface; for example, place dark equipment on a light-colored tray. 
Monitor with a Larger Print Display 
  • Obtain a monitor that has a larger-print display, backlighting, or contrast/reverse contrast. 
  • To learn about the full range of blood glucose monitors currently available, see this consumer guide from the American Diabetes Association. 
Monitor with Speech Capability  If you’ve been certified as legally blind, it’s likely you’ll meet the requirements of most insurers to obtain a blood glucose monitor with speech capability, also called a talking blood glucose monitor. Be aware that talking monitors fall into two categories – those with partial speech and those with full speech. Those with partial speech may only announce your blood glucose result, while meters with full speech not only announce your result but also announce the results in memory, low battery warning, and audible steps to set the time and other monitor features. Current full speech monitors include:  Even if your monitor has a large print display and/or speech capability, you may still want to use additional low vision, tactile, and/or auditory techniques to help with accurate and effective blood glucose monitoring: 
  • Explore your test strips either (a) visually to identify color differences or (b) by touch to identify textural features. This will help you position the strip in the proper direction before inserting it into the monitor. 
  • Before obtaining a blood drop for self-monitoring of blood glucose, increase blood flow by shaking your hand gently at your side and washing your hands in warm water. 
  • Try this technique for inserting the test strip: (1) Use your left index finger as a “marker” and place it parallel with the slot that holds the test strip; (2) Hold the test strip in your right hand so that it is parallel with, and touching, the left, or “marker” finger; (3) Using the “marker” finger as a guide, insert the test strip into the monitor. Reverse these instructions if you are left-handed. 
  • If you have low vision and find it difficult to locate the blood droplet/sample after lancing your finger, (a) bring your finger closer to your eye; (b) use additional lighting; or (c) hold your finger with the droplet against a white or other contrasting background. 
  • Determine the number of strokes that are required to “milk” your finger and produce a large enough blood sample. Meters are now available that require very small amounts of blood if producing a sufficient blood sample is a problem. To obtain a larger sample, set your lancing device to a deeper penetration, the higher the number the deeper the penetration. 
  • Create a mental map of where you lance your finger in relation to your fingernail to help you locate the blood droplet/sample. 
  • Use a monitor with a “beep” feature that indicates (a) when you have completed a step and (b) when to proceed to the next step. 
Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGMs)  A continuous glucose monitor (CGM) is a device used for monitoring blood glucose levels through interstitial fluid on a continual basis. A CGM takes a blood sugar reading on set intervals via a sensor that has a thin, flexible filament inserted just under the skin and held in place by an adhesive. It sends the data to either a reader device, an app, or both. CGMs can be a good choice for people with diabetes and vision loss, as they do not require finger sticks. The readers are not accessible, but the CGMs listed have an app that can be used with Talk Back on an android phone or Voice Over on an iPhone to make them accessible.   **All phones are not able to download the apps, check your phone’s ability before getting a CGM.  Insulin and Insulin Measurement  Insulin is the medication most often associated with diabetes. Insulin therapy is used by people with type 1 diabetes and for those with type 2 diabetes when other forms of therapy (diet, exercise, and/or non-insulin medications) are no longer effective in controlling blood glucose levels. Here are some important facts about insulin: 
  • Insulin must be timed to coincide with your food and activity levels. For example, if you take your usual dose of insulin in the morning and then decide to eat a lighter lunch than you originally planned, your blood glucose levels could become very low. Be sure to discuss insulin problem-solving strategies with your diabetes health care team. 
  • Insulin, like any other medication, has an expiration date. Talk with your physician if you use your insulin for more than 30 days or keep it beyond its expiration date. 
Adaptive Devices for Insulin Measurement  There are several adaptive devices currently available that can help with insulin measurement if you are blind or have low vision. The most accessible way to draw up and administer insulin is by using an insulin pen. However, if pens are not an option for you there are some adaptive devices that can be used. Please note: Always consult with your diabetes health care team before purchasing and using any adaptive insulin measurement device, including insulin pens.   
  1. For low vision insulin measurement
  1. For non-visual insulin measurement
Fixed-dose insulin measurement devices are appropriate for individuals whose insulin dosage remains consistent from day to day:  Flexible-dose insulin measurement devices are appropriate for individuals who need to vary their daily insulin dosage, due to changing blood glucose levels and/or carbohydrate intake: 
  • The Prodigy Count-a-Dose accommodates a smaller dose (up to 50 units). It holds one or two vials of insulin and makes a distinctive click that can be heard and felt with each unit increment. It requires a B-D 50 unit/ ½ cc syringe. 
Insulin pens provide another non-visual measurement option. Many are disposable and pre-filled with insulin, while others are refillable. All pens make a distinctive click that can be heard and felt with each unit. A 2010 study provided evidence of the safe use of insulin pens by persons with vision loss, despite earlier disclaimers that persons using insulin pens could not do so independently without supervision. Insulin pens require a doctor’s prescription.  
  • The availability of insulin pens changes often. Here is the current list. 
  1. The insulin pump for continuous (24/7) insulin delivery
An insulin pump is a computerized device – approximately the size of a deck of cards – that administers insulin, via flexible plastic tubing, to a small needle inserted just beneath the skin. It is programmed to closely mimic the body’s normal release of insulin from the pancreas. Some models have tactile controls and audio features, but not all features are accessible by individuals who are blind or have low vision. 
  • There are alternative insulin delivery systems known as a “patch pump” or wearable insulin delivery systems. These systems consist of a “patch” that you fill with insulin, attach to your body (usually on your abdomen) and it provides you with insulin for 24 to 72 hours without the need to draw up and administer insulin several times a day.  
  • The American Diabetes Association provides a listing and comparison of all current insulin pumps 
  1. Inhaled insulin
Afrezza is a rapid-acting orally inhaled insulin that consists of an inhaler and three different doses of insulin in cartridge format. Your diabetes health care team can provide more information about these devices, including eligibility requirements, insurance coverage, accessibility features, and appropriate training.  Healthy Eating  There are many adaptations that can help you follow a nutrition management plan, which is an important component of diabetes self-management. Please note: Always consult with your diabetes health care team to select and follow a nutrition management plan that’s right for you.   
  1. Achieve Portion Control by using any of the following methods and adaptations:
  • Nested, large print, color contrasting, or color-coded measuring cups and spoons 
  • Portion-controlled serving utensils, available at restaurant supply stores 
  • Use a talking food scale, or place tactile markings on your own food scale. To learn more about labeling products and techniques for people who are blind or have low vision, see Labeling and Marking. 
  • Use dishes that control your food portions: a 4-ounce juice cup, a 9-inch plate, or a 1-cup cereal bowl. 
  • Use a plate with built-in portions. 
  • Visit Diabetes Meal Planning for more information on portion control, counting carbohydrates and the Food Plate Method for portion control. 
  1. Accessing printed information on food labels is also necessary for healthy eating, especially when counting carbohydrates. It’s possible to obtain nutrition information by using any of the following methods and adaptations:
  1. Record nutrition information and save it for future reference by using any of the following methods and adaptations:
  1. There are a number of online resources and publications that specifically address nutrition, meal planning, and recipe information for individuals with diabetes:
Being Active  Physical activity includes formal exercise as well as sports, leisure or recreational activities, and even household chores. You can accumulate a minimum of 30 minutes of activity throughout the day by making simple changes in your level of physical activity, such as taking the steps instead of the elevator and walking to the store instead of taking the bus or driving. To improve health, the U.S. Surgeon General recommends moderate physical activity most, and preferably all, days of the week. What is moderate physical activity? 
  • Mild intensity: Bowling, strolling (walking 2 mi/hr), billiards, stretching, stationary cycling (5 mi/hr) 
  • Moderate intensity: Calisthenics, ballroom dancing, golf (walking/carrying clubs), water exercise, walking (3 mi/hr) 
  • High intensity: Cycling (>10 mi/hr), swimming (moderate effort), brisk walking (>4 mi/hr), vigorous dance (square dancing) 
Physical activity is an important component of diabetes self-management, and some of its many benefits include the following: 
  • Maintaining and improving overall health 
  • Increasing strength and endurance 
  • Improving blood glucose control 
  • Controlling blood pressure 
  • Increasing beneficial HDL cholesterol and decreasing unhealthy LDL cholesterol 
  • Reducing stress, which can increase blood glucose levels 
  • Helping with weight loss 
Note: Always consult with your diabetes health care team to select and follow an individualized exercise program that includes general exercise guidelines, physical and ocular precautions and restrictions, blood glucose monitoring, and management of hypoglycemia. Some exercise precautions with diabetic eye disease include: 
  • Avoid activities that raise the blood pressure in the body or head, such as when lifting free weights. 
  • Avoid bending the head forward below the level of the heart/waist, such as when doing toe touches. 
  • Avoid holding your breath or straining, as when tightening stomach muscles and lifting legs. 
  • Avoid activities that jar or bounce the head, such as when jogging. 
  • Avoid strenuous, high-impact activities, such as high-impact aerobic dance. 
Here are some helpful hints and adaptations for exercise: 
  • A treadmill can supplement your walking program. 
  • A tandem or stationary bicycle is helpful for cycling. 
  • A rowing machine or cross-country ski trainer can provide aerobic exercise. 
  • Mark exercise machine controls with raised markings if possible 
  • An arm cycle can provide low impact aerobic exercise. 
  • Swimming is a good form of exercise if you have physical limitations or difficulty walking or running. Swim near the wall or use lane markers if you have vision loss. 
  • Stand near a wall or chair to better orient yourself during aerobic exercise. 
  • Use a talking pedometer. 
  • Create large print or braille exercise records or use an accessible exercise phone app to track and record your progress. 
  • Wear a medical alert tag or bracelet. 
  • Test your blood glucose before, after, and during your exercise session if you feel symptoms of hypoglycemia. 
  • Keep a fast-acting carbohydrate snack nearby. 
  • Wear proper socks and shoes. 
  • Perform a foot exam before and after exercise. 
  • Check the floor space to avoid hazards and obstacles. 
Proper Foot Care  Proper foot care is a crucial component of diabetes self-management, since several complications related to diabetes can cause serious foot problems: 
  • Decreased sensation can lead to foot injuries. 
  • Impaired temperature regulation can cause dry and cracked skin on the feet, which can lead to bacterial infections. 
  • Impaired circulation can lead to impaired healing ability and, in serious cases, amputation. 
Develop a reliable foot inspection routine: 
  • Establish a consistent time to check your feet every day, such as after bathing or before bedtime. 
  • Pay special attention to previous or existing foot problems. 
  • Wash your feet daily and dry them carefully, especially between your toes. Apply lotion to your feet, but not between your toes. 
  • Ask your physician to perform a foot inspection during every visit; in fact, it’s perfectly all right to take your shoes off during your appointment to make sure your physician checks your feet. 
  • Make an appointment with a podiatrist at least once a year. Be sure to tell your podiatrist that you have diabetes. 
  • Contact your physician if a cut, blister, or sore does not begin to heal after one day; contact your physician immediately if your foot is painful or swollen. 
Please note: Medicare Part B and Medicaid coverage is available for biannual foot exams for people with decreased sensation in their feet due to diabetes. Medicare Part B covers 80% of the cost of one pair of custom-molded shoes (including inserts) and two additional pairs of inserts per year. One pair of depth shoes which provide extra room to allow for differently-shaped feet and toes is also allowed each year. A physician’s prescription is required for adaptive footwear or accessories. Here are some helpful hints for performing a foot inspection: 
  • You can perform a tactile foot inspection effectively only if sensation is intact in your hands and fingertips. 
  • Use your fingertips to search for skin and/or foot irregularities, such as cuts, breaks in the skin, blisters, new calluses, swollen areas, bumps, embedded objects, and changes in foot texture and/or shape. 
  • Feel the entire top and bottom surfaces of each foot, using overlapping strokes in an organized pattern. Be sure to check the nail beds, all pressure points, and the areas between your toes. 
  • Run the back of your hand (which is more sensitive to temperature changes) over the top and bottom surfaces of each foot, feeling for excessively cool (impaired circulation) or warm (possibly infected) areas. Compare these areas to other parts of your foot or to your other foot. 
  • Feel for changes in the skin texture or shape of your feet. 
  • Note any changes in foot odor when removing your socks and shoes. 
  • Check for wet, moist, or crusty areas on your socks, which can indicate blood or discharge. 
  • If you have low vision, try using one the following adaptations: a task lamp with a flexible arm, or place a dark towel underneath your feet for better contrast. 
Here are some tips to help care for your feet and prevent diabetic foot problems: 
  • Do not smoke. If you do smoke, try to stop. 
  • Notify your physician or podiatrist immediately if you detect any problems. 
  • Avoid temperature extremes when washing your feet. 
  • If you feel cold at night, wear cotton socks. Do not use hot water bottles or heating pads. 
  • Do not soak your feet for a prolonged period of time, unless your physician or podiatrist prescribes it. Taking a bath or shower is fine, however. 
  • Your toenails should be cut or filed straight across (not cut into the corners), ideally by a podiatrist. File your nails with an emery board between cuttings, if necessary. Foot care specialists strongly recommend that people with visual impairment have their toenails cut by a podiatrist, which has the added advantage of providing frequent expert foot inspection. 
  • Inspect the insides of your shoes every day for torn linings, nail points, and other objects that can damage your feet. 
  • Do not walk barefoot or in your stocking feet. 
  • Wear socks or stockings that fit properly, keep your feet dry, and do not have raised seams. Be sure to change your socks every day. 
  • Do not remove corns or calluses on your own, and do not use commercial corn and callus removal products. Visit your podiatrist for any of these procedures. 
Overall Health Management  There are other adaptations that can help with maintaining your health or managing illness: 
  • A large display or talking blood pressure monitor 
  • A large display or talking blood glucose monitor 
  • A large display or talking weight scale 
  • A large display or talking thermometer 
  • A large display or talking food scale 
  • A talking pedometer 
  • Label your carbohydrate-containing and calorie-free liquids in braille, large print, or another accessible format. 
      Current breadcrumb: https://visionaware.org/your-eye-condition/diabetic-retinopathy/managing-your-diabetes-5709/     How Can I Manage My Diabetes?    Leer esta página en Español  By Debra A. Sokol-McKay, MS, CVRT, CDE, CLVT, OTR/L, SCLV  Updated by Kim Ladd, RN, BS, CPHQ, CDCES and Audrey Demmitt, RN, BSN, June 2021      Diabetes is a disease that requires 24-hour, 7-day-a-week self-management. It is YOU who lives with your diabetes and it is YOU who will make your health care decisions in consultation with your doctor or other members of your health care team. Blindness or low vision may present challenges, but aren’t necessarily barriers to effective and successful self-management of diabetes. Diabetes Self-ManagementBlood Glucose MonitoringInsulin and Insulin MeasurementHealthy EatingBeing ActiveProper Foot CareOverall Health Management    Diabetes Self-Management  Certified diabetes care and education specialists (CDCES), which are usually nurses or dieticians, in consultation with primary care physicians and endocrinologists (physicians who specialize in the diagnosis and treatment of conditions affecting the glands and hormones), can help you learn more about managing your diabetes with diabetes self-management education (DSME) or diabetes self-management training (DSMT):  Visit your primary care physician when: 
  • You have an episode of very low blood glucose, several days of low blood glucose, or you can’t determine when your blood glucose is becoming low. 
  • You want to discuss a change or modification in your diabetes treatment plan. 
Visit an endocrinologist when: 
  • Your blood glucose levels are consistently higher than you want them to be. 
  • You have one or more diabetes complications or medical conditions that make managing your diabetes difficult. 
  • You’d like to change the way you manage your diabetes. 
Visit a nurse diabetes educator when: 
  • You want to better understand how diabetes affects your entire body. 
  • You want basic training to manage your diabetes. 
  • You’re having difficulty with at least one diabetes-related task, such as monitoring your blood glucose levels. 
  • You’re having problems coping with the emotional aspects of your diabetes. 
  • You want to start an exercise program or find physical activities to help you keep your diabetes in better control. 
Visit a dietician when: 
  • You don’t understand what or how much to eat. 
  • You have never had a consultation with a dietician, or the consultation was several years ago. 
  • You want to learn how to count carbohydrates for meal planning or insulin dosing. 
The most effective diabetes self-management treatment includes a combination of many therapies. ADCES proposes that there are 7 key behaviors that lead to optimum diabetes self-management and health. These are called the ADCES7™ Self-Care Behaviors. They include: 
  1. Healthy coping: recognizing negative emotions and taking steps to reduce the detrimental impact they can have on your self-care is an important part of diabetes management.  
  1. Healthy eating:preparing and eating a healthy diet, understanding and reading food labels, and portion control. When you have diabetes it’s very important to understand how the foods you eat affect your blood sugar levels. 
  1. Being active: engaging in appropriate physical activity and exercise while following necessary precautions. Being active helps to lower blood sugar levels, cholesterol levels, improve blood pressure, lower stress and anxiety, and improve your mood. 
  1. Monitoring: tracking blood sugar levels allows you to make food and activity adjustments to help ensure that your diabetes is being properly managed. It’s also important to monitor your blood pressure, foot health, steps walked, weight and activity, sleep, and achievement of goals, to help you stay on the path of good health.  
  1. Taking medication: taking medications in pill, injectable, liquid, and other forms as directed by your physician is a very important part of controlling blood sugar levels. 
  1. Problem solving: diabetes management problems like hypoglcemia/hyperglycemia, and sick days are very common. It’s important to utilize problem-solving skills to help prepare for when these unexpected problems occur– and make a plan for dealing with similar problems in the future. 
  1. Reducing risks: when diabetes is not properly managed, other health complications occur. It is important to help reduce your risk of complications by quitting smoking, performing foot checks, blood pressure monitoring, self-monitoring of blood glucose levels and getting regular eye, foot, and dental examinations. 
Blood Glucose Monitoring  Blood glucose monitoring allows you to evaluate the effectiveness of your diabetes treatment plan in maintaining your blood glucose levels within a normal range. Monitoring will also help you determine if your blood glucose level is low and, if so, what quantity of glucose-containing products or foods you must eat to raise your blood glucose levels into a safe range.    Monitor with a Standard Visual Display  In order to perform effective and consistent blood glucose monitoring, you must be able to access the numerical readout on your monitor. Here are some suggestions for individuals who have low vision and use a blood glucose monitor with a standard visual display: 
  • Use a magnifier or an electronic video magnifier with your current monitor. 
  • Use a flexible-arm task lamp and position it near your better-seeing eye. 
  • Place your monitoring equipment on a contrasting surface; for example, place dark equipment on a light-colored tray. 
Monitor with a Larger Print Display 
  • Obtain a monitor that has a larger-print display, backlighting, or contrast/reverse contrast. 
  • To learn about the full range of blood glucose monitors currently available, see this consumer guide from the American Diabetes Association. 
Monitor with Speech Capability  If you’ve been certified as legally blind, it’s likely you’ll meet the requirements of most insurers to obtain a blood glucose monitor with speech capability, also called a talking blood glucose monitor. Be aware that talking monitors fall into two categories – those with partial speech and those with full speech. Those with partial speech may only announce your blood glucose result, while meters with full speech not only announce your result but also announce the results in memory, low battery warning, and audible steps to set the time and other monitor features. Current full speech monitors include:  Even if your monitor has a large print display and/or speech capability, you may still want to use additional low vision, tactile, and/or auditory techniques to help with accurate and effective blood glucose monitoring: 
  • Explore your test strips either (a) visually to identify color differences or (b) by touch to identify textural features. This will help you position the strip in the proper direction before inserting it into the monitor. 
  • Before obtaining a blood drop for self-monitoring of blood glucose, increase blood flow by shaking your hand gently at your side and washing your hands in warm water. 
  • Try this technique for inserting the test strip: (1) Use your left index finger as a “marker” and place it parallel with the slot that holds the test strip; (2) Hold the test strip in your right hand so that it is parallel with, and touching, the left, or “marker” finger; (3) Using the “marker” finger as a guide, insert the test strip into the monitor. Reverse these instructions if you are left-handed. 
  • If you have low vision and find it difficult to locate the blood droplet/sample after lancing your finger, (a) bring your finger closer to your eye; (b) use additional lighting; or (c) hold your finger with the droplet against a white or other contrasting background. 
  • Determine the number of strokes that are required to “milk” your finger and produce a large enough blood sample. Meters are now available that require very small amounts of blood if producing a sufficient blood sample is a problem. To obtain a larger sample, set your lancing device to a deeper penetration, the higher the number the deeper the penetration. 
  • Create a mental map of where you lance your finger in relation to your fingernail to help you locate the blood droplet/sample. 
  • Use a monitor with a “beep” feature that indicates (a) when you have completed a step and (b) when to proceed to the next step. 
Continuous Glucose Monitors (CGMs)  A continuous glucose monitor (CGM) is a device used for monitoring blood glucose levels through interstitial fluid on a continual basis. A CGM takes a blood sugar reading on set intervals via a sensor that has a thin, flexible filament inserted just under the skin and held in place by an adhesive. It sends the data to either a reader device, an app, or both. CGMs can be a good choice for people with diabetes and vision loss, as they do not require finger sticks. The readers are not accessible, but the CGMs listed have an app that can be used with Talk Back on an android phone or Voice Over on an iPhone to make them accessible.   **All phones are not able to download the apps, check your phone’s ability before getting a CGM.  Insulin and Insulin Measurement  Insulin is the medication most often associated with diabetes. Insulin therapy is used by people with type 1 diabetes and for those with type 2 diabetes when other forms of therapy (diet, exercise, and/or non-insulin medications) are no longer effective in controlling blood glucose levels. Here are some important facts about insulin: 
  • Insulin must be timed to coincide with your food and activity levels. For example, if you take your usual dose of insulin in the morning and then decide to eat a lighter lunch than you originally planned, your blood glucose levels could become very low. Be sure to discuss insulin problem-solving strategies with your diabetes health care team. 
  • Insulin, like any other medication, has an expiration date. Talk with your physician if you use your insulin for more than 30 days or keep it beyond its expiration date. 
Adaptive Devices for Insulin Measurement  There are several adaptive devices currently available that can help with insulin measurement if you are blind or have low vision. The most accessible way to draw up and administer insulin is by using an insulin pen. However, if pens are not an option for you there are some adaptive devices that can be used. Please note: Always consult with your diabetes health care team before purchasing and using any adaptive insulin measurement device, including insulin pens.   
  1. For low vision insulin measurement
  1. For non-visual insulin measurement
Fixed-dose insulin measurement devices are appropriate for individuals whose insulin dosage remains consistent from day to day:  Flexible-dose insulin measurement devices are appropriate for individuals who need to vary their daily insulin dosage, due to changing blood glucose levels and/or carbohydrate intake: 
  • The Prodigy Count-a-Dose accommodates a smaller dose (up to 50 units). It holds one or two vials of insulin and makes a distinctive click that can be heard and felt with each unit increment. It requires a B-D 50 unit/ ½ cc syringe. 
Insulin pens provide another non-visual measurement option. Many are disposable and pre-filled with insulin, while others are refillable. All pens make a distinctive click that can be heard and felt with each unit. A 2010 study provided evidence of the safe use of insulin pens by persons with vision loss, despite earlier disclaimers that persons using insulin pens could not do so independently without supervision. Insulin pens require a doctor’s prescription.  
  • The availability of insulin pens changes often. Here is the current list. 
  1. The insulin pump for continuous (24/7) insulin delivery
An insulin pump is a computerized device – approximately the size of a deck of cards – that administers insulin, via flexible plastic tubing, to a small needle inserted just beneath the skin. It is programmed to closely mimic the body’s normal release of insulin from the pancreas. Some models have tactile controls and audio features, but not all features are accessible by individuals who are blind or have low vision. 
  • There are alternative insulin delivery systems known as a “patch pump” or wearable insulin delivery systems. These systems consist of a “patch” that you fill with insulin, attach to your body (usually on your abdomen) and it provides you with insulin for 24 to 72 hours without the need to draw up and administer insulin several times a day.  
  • The American Diabetes Association provides a listing and comparison of all current insulin pumps 
  1. Inhaled insulin
Afrezza is a rapid-acting orally inhaled insulin that consists of an inhaler and three different doses of insulin in cartridge format. Your diabetes health care team can provide more information about these devices, including eligibility requirements, insurance coverage, accessibility features, and appropriate training.  Healthy Eating  There are many adaptations that can help you follow a nutrition management plan, which is an important component of diabetes self-management. Please note: Always consult with your diabetes health care team to select and follow a nutrition management plan that’s right for you.   
  1. Achieve Portion Control by using any of the following methods and adaptations:
  • Nested, large print, color contrasting, or color-coded measuring cups and spoons 
  • Portion-controlled serving utensils, available at restaurant supply stores 
  • Use a talking food scale, or place tactile markings on your own food scale. To learn more about labeling products and techniques for people who are blind or have low vision, see Labeling and Marking. 
  • Use dishes that control your food portions: a 4-ounce juice cup, a 9-inch plate, or a 1-cup cereal bowl. 
  • Use a plate with built-in portions. 
  • Visit Diabetes Meal Planning for more information on portion control, counting carbohydrates and the Food Plate Method for portion control. 
  1. Accessing printed information on food labels is also necessary for healthy eating, especially when counting carbohydrates. It’s possible to obtain nutrition information by using any of the following methods and adaptations:
  1. Record nutrition information and save it for future reference by using any of the following methods and adaptations:
  1. There are a number of online resources and publications that specifically address nutrition, meal planning, and recipe information for individuals with diabetes:
Being Active  Physical activity includes formal exercise as well as sports, leisure or recreational activities, and even household chores. You can accumulate a minimum of 30 minutes of activity throughout the day by making simple changes in your level of physical activity, such as taking the steps instead of the elevator and walking to the store instead of taking the bus or driving. To improve health, the U.S. Surgeon General recommends moderate physical activity most, and preferably all, days of the week. What is moderate physical activity? 
  • Mild intensity: Bowling, strolling (walking 2 mi/hr), billiards, stretching, stationary cycling (5 mi/hr) 
  • Moderate intensity: Calisthenics, ballroom dancing, golf (walking/carrying clubs), water exercise, walking (3 mi/hr) 
  • High intensity: Cycling (>10 mi/hr), swimming (moderate effort), brisk walking (>4 mi/hr), vigorous dance (square dancing) 
Physical activity is an important component of diabetes self-management, and some of its many benefits include the following: 
  • Maintaining and improving overall health 
  • Increasing strength and endurance 
  • Improving blood glucose control 
  • Controlling blood pressure 
  • Increasing beneficial HDL cholesterol and decreasing unhealthy LDL cholesterol 
  • Reducing stress, which can increase blood glucose levels 
  • Helping with weight loss 
Note: Always consult with your diabetes health care team to select and follow an individualized exercise program that includes general exercise guidelines, physical and ocular precautions and restrictions, blood glucose monitoring, and management of hypoglycemia. Some exercise precautions with diabetic eye disease include: 
  • Avoid activities that raise the blood pressure in the body or head, such as when lifting free weights. 
  • Avoid bending the head forward below the level of the heart/waist, such as when doing toe touches. 
  • Avoid holding your breath or straining, as when tightening stomach muscles and lifting legs. 
  • Avoid activities that jar or bounce the head, such as when jogging. 
  • Avoid strenuous, high-impact activities, such as high-impact aerobic dance. 
Here are some helpful hints and adaptations for exercise: 
  • A treadmill can supplement your walking program. 
  • A tandem or stationary bicycle is helpful for cycling. 
  • A rowing machine or cross-country ski trainer can provide aerobic exercise. 
  • Mark exercise machine controls with raised markings if possible 
  • An arm cycle can provide low impact aerobic exercise. 
  • Swimming is a good form of exercise if you have physical limitations or difficulty walking or running. Swim near the wall or use lane markers if you have vision loss. 
  • Stand near a wall or chair to better orient yourself during aerobic exercise. 
  • Use a talking pedometer. 
  • Create large print or braille exercise records or use an accessible exercise phone app to track and record your progress. 
  • Wear a medical alert tag or bracelet. 
  • Test your blood glucose before, after, and during your exercise session if you feel symptoms of hypoglycemia. 
  • Keep a fast-acting carbohydrate snack nearby. 
  • Wear proper socks and shoes. 
  • Perform a foot exam before and after exercise. 
  • Check the floor space to avoid hazards and obstacles. 
Proper Foot Care  Proper foot care is a crucial component of diabetes self-management, since several complications related to diabetes can cause serious foot problems: 
  • Decreased sensation can lead to foot injuries. 
  • Impaired temperature regulation can cause dry and cracked skin on the feet, which can lead to bacterial infections. 
  • Impaired circulation can lead to impaired healing ability and, in serious cases, amputation. 
Develop a reliable foot inspection routine: 
  • Establish a consistent time to check your feet every day, such as after bathing or before bedtime. 
  • Pay special attention to previous or existing foot problems. 
  • Wash your feet daily and dry them carefully, especially between your toes. Apply lotion to your feet, but not between your toes. 
  • Ask your physician to perform a foot inspection during every visit; in fact, it’s perfectly all right to take your shoes off during your appointment to make sure your physician checks your feet. 
  • Make an appointment with a podiatrist at least once a year. Be sure to tell your podiatrist that you have diabetes. 
  • Contact your physician if a cut, blister, or sore does not begin to heal after one day; contact your physician immediately if your foot is painful or swollen. 
Please note: Medicare Part B and Medicaid coverage is available for biannual foot exams for people with decreased sensation in their feet due to diabetes. Medicare Part B covers 80% of the cost of one pair of custom-molded shoes (including inserts) and two additional pairs of inserts per year. One pair of depth shoes which provide extra room to allow for differently-shaped feet and toes is also allowed each year. A physician’s prescription is required for adaptive footwear or accessories. Here are some helpful hints for performing a foot inspection: 
  • You can perform a tactile foot inspection effectively only if sensation is intact in your hands and fingertips. 
  • Use your fingertips to search for skin and/or foot irregularities, such as cuts, breaks in the skin, blisters, new calluses, swollen areas, bumps, embedded objects, and changes in foot texture and/or shape. 
  • Feel the entire top and bottom surfaces of each foot, using overlapping strokes in an organized pattern. Be sure to check the nail beds, all pressure points, and the areas between your toes. 
  • Run the back of your hand (which is more sensitive to temperature changes) over the top and bottom surfaces of each foot, feeling for excessively cool (impaired circulation) or warm (possibly infected) areas. Compare these areas to other parts of your foot or to your other foot. 
  • Feel for changes in the skin texture or shape of your feet. 
  • Note any changes in foot odor when removing your socks and shoes. 
  • Check for wet, moist, or crusty areas on your socks, which can indicate blood or discharge. 
  • If you have low vision, try using one the following adaptations: a task lamp with a flexible arm, or place a dark towel underneath your feet for better contrast. 
Here are some tips to help care for your feet and prevent diabetic foot problems: 
  • Do not smoke. If you do smoke, try to stop. 
  • Notify your physician or podiatrist immediately if you detect any problems. 
  • Avoid temperature extremes when washing your feet. 
  • If you feel cold at night, wear cotton socks. Do not use hot water bottles or heating pads. 
  • Do not soak your feet for a prolonged period of time, unless your physician or podiatrist prescribes it. Taking a bath or shower is fine, however. 
  • Your toenails should be cut or filed straight across (not cut into the corners), ideally by a podiatrist. File your nails with an emery board between cuttings, if necessary. Foot care specialists strongly recommend that people with visual impairment have their toenails cut by a podiatrist, which has the added advantage of providing frequent expert foot inspection. 
  • Inspect the insides of your shoes every day for torn linings, nail points, and other objects that can damage your feet. 
  • Do not walk barefoot or in your stocking feet. 
  • Wear socks or stockings that fit properly, keep your feet dry, and do not have raised seams. Be sure to change your socks every day. 
  • Do not remove corns or calluses on your own, and do not use commercial corn and callus removal products. Visit your podiatrist for any of these procedures. 
Overall Health Management  There are other adaptations that can help with maintaining your health or managing illness: 
  • A large display or talking blood pressure monitor 
  • A large display or talking blood glucose monitor 
  • A large display or talking weight scale 
  • A large display or talking thermometer 
  • A large display or talking food scale 
  • A talking pedometer 
  • Label your carbohydrate-containing and calorie-free liquids in braille, large print, or another accessible format.