Blind Tom: The Story of a Georgia Slave Who Was Never Fully Emancipated

Empish Thomas

Famous Native Son

Martin Luther King, Jr., Harriett Tubman, Sojourner Truth, Washington Carver, Malcolm X, and Fredrick Douglas – these are names of famous African-Americans that are well known and observed during Black History Month in February. This year I wanted to bring to your attention a famous native son whose story is not typically in the history books or spoken about in conversation. Thomas Wiggins who was born a slave in Columbus, Georgia in 1849, was an incredible musical performer and entertainer. From a very young age, he traveled all over the US and Europe playing classical music and performing on stage to massive audiences. He was also known for having what we know today as autism and was a musical savant.

Never Fully emancipated

What makes his story so incredibly compelling and sad is that he was never fully emancipated from slavery. After the Civil War was over, his parents signed an agreement with General James Neil Bethune, a lawyer and newspaper editor, to a five-year contract of indentured servitude. During this time in history, African-Americans who were newly freed and uneducated were not able to exercise their full rights, especially a former slave that was disabled. His parents felt that it would be better for him to be under the care and protection of someone they knew than to run the risk of him being abused or even stolen by strangers. This unfortunately began his life of permanent servitude, all the while never being completely free until his death in 1908.

A musical Genius

From the time he could walk, Tom developed a deep fascination with nature and sound. Once his master purchased a piano it was virtually impossible to keep Tom from being close to it and wanting to play. His desire was so great that he became quite emotional and would literally throw temper tantrums if his wishes were not met. His master soon discovered that Tom had an incredible talent for music and could play very difficult pieces with little to no practice time. His master started to place Tom in minstrel shows around the country. He was known for being an obsessive and demanding child with a healthy appetite that continued into his adult life.

Tom was also known for playing the piano for hours on end. He would play Beethoven, Mozart and other classical musicians. He even composed several pieces of his own. During his lifetime, he was one of the most well-known pianists and made thousands of dollars for his owners which in today’s terms would be millions.

Multiple Transfers of Ownership

One of the most important things that contributed to Tom’s slavery and permanent servitude was the transfer of ownership. When he was a young musician and traveling across the United States he was owned by General Bethune. His ownership was then transferred to his son, John Bethune. After John died in a train accident, he went back to General Bethune, but lost in a court battle to John’s wife, Eliza, who became Tom’s last and final owner. These transfers of ownership were all attempts to keep Tom and the money he made with little regard to his family. Tom’s mother made legal attempts in vain to free him, but his owners were always able to elude the legal system. In 1904, Eliza, after 40 years of performing, took Tom off the road when he had a stroke which led to him having difficulty playing the piano. Four years later, Tom had another stroke that ended his life. Tom was buried in New York, but the people of Columbus, Georgia raised a headstone in his honor in 1976.

His Story is Intriguing

I find this story of Blind Tom’s life intriguing, especially since this past year was the 150 year anniversary of the Emancipation Proclamation. I first learned about Tom several years ago while attending a performance of his life at a local community theater and I was captivated then and still am to this day. As a blind African-American woman, a descendant of slaves, and someone who lives in Georgia and grew up in the South, his story speaks to me in a very powerful way.

Find Out More About Blind Tom

Plays, films and books have all been written and performed to capture Tom’s incredible life story. There is also a website devoted to him called You can hear his music (played by someone else) and some of his sheet music is on the website as well. Two books are available at NLS in digital format. They are listed below and can be ordered by calling your local talking book library.

The Ballad of Blind Tom By Deirdre O’Connell DB 71033

Blind Tom, The Black Pianist-Composer: Continually Enslaved By Geneva Southall DB 54557

More About Autism

You may also want to read Nancy Duncan’s post A Cross Disability: Visual Impairment and Autism.

Editor’s note: This story was originally published on the SightSeeing Blog at the Center for the Visually Impaired in February, 2013.

Read more on Autism Spectrum Disorders.